Understanding the levels of conflict—strategy, operations, and tactics—can help policymakers mitigate the effectiveness of a disinformation campaign. Russia's operation against the 2016 U.S. election is a case in point.
CFR's Stephen Sestanovich, James M. Lindsay, and Robert McMahon preview U.S. President Donald J. Trump's meeting with Russian President Vladimir Putin on the sidelines of the G20 summit in Hamburg, Germany.
The nuclear arms race was one of the most alarming features of the Cold War superpower competition between the United States and Soviet Union. Both sides rapidly expanded their nuclear stockpiles, but after two decades, each embarked on efforts to cut down its arsenal. Disarmament efforts picked up speed after the dissolution of the Soviet Union, but maintaining momentum and confidence in arms control between the United States and Russia has proved challenging.